Miniature_of_Guru_Nanak_from_an Astronomical_treatiseGuru Nanak taught a devotional monotheism, referring to God as Sat Nam – ‘The True Name.’ Other names used for God include Ram, Gobind, Hari, Waheguru (‘Wonderful Lord’).

He rejected Ahimsa, though he accepted the principle of reincarnation and the law of Karma. He eliminated ceremonialism and ritual. Guru Nanak also believed in the Hindu doctrine of Maya or illusion.

For the Guru salvation consisted in becoming one with God. Salvation was not going to Paradise (Islam) after the last judgement but absorption in Nirvana – becoming one with God, the True Name.

There are five cardinal vices which a Sikh looks to overcome in order to achieve salvation, they are:

Kam (Lust) Karodh (Anger) Lobh (Greed)
Moh (Worldly attachment) Hankar (Pride)
To overcome these vices the following qualities are required:

Santokh (Contentment) Dan (Charity)
Daya (Kindness) Parsanta (Happiness)
Nimarta (Humility)

Sikhs have identified 5 stages on the journey to God:

1. Dharam Khand (realisation of spiritual duty)
2. Gian Khand (Divine Knowledge)
3. Saram Khand (wisdom and effort)
4. Karam Khand (Divine grace).
5. Sach Khand (Truth).